EL Support Lesson

Quotes with Introductory Phrases

Help your EL students find and record quotes as evidence in nonfiction texts with the help of introductory phrases and sentence frames. This can support the lesson Making Inferences in Nonfiction Texts.
This lesson can be used as a pre-lesson for theMaking Inferences in Nonfiction TextsLesson plan.
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This lesson can be used as a pre-lesson for theMaking Inferences in Nonfiction TextsLesson plan.

Students will be able to make inferences based on evidence when reading nonfiction texts.


Students will be able to find and record a quote from a nonfiction text with introductory phrases using sentence frames.

(2 minutes)
Cite an Author with Introductory PhrasesSoccer: Nonfiction TextColor Coding Nonfiction Text: BearsVocabulary Cards: Quotes with Introductory PhrasesGraphic Organizer Template: Frayer Model
  • Write a quote from a familiar book or author on the board (e.g., "You are braver than you believe, stronger than you seem, and smarter than you think." –A.A. Milne). Read the quote aloud and explain to students that this is something that the author A.A. Milne wrote in a book (Winnie the Pooh). Remind students that an AuthorIs a person who writes something, like a book or article.
  • Emphasize that, since this is something the author wrote and not your own words, it must be written with quotation marks (point out the quotation marks on the board). Remind students that in a text quotation signals dialogue. But we must also use quotation marks when we copy someone else's words in our own writing. Tell students that this is called a Quote.
  • Explain that when we quote someone, we must give them credit for their words by writing their name. Tell students that this is called "citing the author." Write "CiteThe author" on the board and draw an arrow to the author's name on the board.
  • Tell students that today they will be using specific words and phrases to reference quotes from nonfiction texts.
(10 minutes)
  • Display five picture vocabulary cards on the board (author, quote, cite, evidence, nonfiction). Read each word and definition aloud, then invite students do a choral read-aloud of each word.
  • Explain that these are some key terms that they will need to understand as they learn to find and cite quotes from texts.
  • Display a blank copy of a Frayer Model and model how to complete each section for the word Nonfiction(a text, like a book or article, that gives facts about a topic).
  • Hang up four large copies of the Frayer Model, one in each corner of the room. Write one of the remaining four vocabulary words on each of the posted organizers (author, quote, cite, evidence).
  • Divide students into four groups and assign each group a vocabulary word. Provide a different colored marker for each group and lead students through a carousel activity:
    • Give groups two minutes to discuss and fill out sections of their assigned Frayer Model. Tell students that they do not need to complete the entire organizer during this first rotation.
    • Have groups rotate to the next Frayer Model. Tell them to read the information from the previous group and add more information to the organizer. (Note: Each subsequent rotation should last one minute.)
    • Continue rotating groups until all Frayer Models are complete. Then, have students stay where they are and invite each group to read the information for their vocabulary word aloud.
    • Correct any errors or misconceptions and leave the models posted for the duration of the lesson.
(10 minutes)
  • Display the first page of the worksheet Soccer: Nonfiction Text and read it aloud as students follow along. (Note: Do not display the graphic organizer.)
  • Highlight a quote in the text, like "Soccer is a favorite pastime of people in every state of the country." Model how to record the quote using an introductory phrase (e.g., "According to the author...").
  • Point out that in this example you used the phrase "the author" since you don't know the author's name. Remind students that they ShouldUse the author's name if it is included in the text they are reading. Point to the quote on the board as an example and use introductory phrases to rewrite the quote. (e.g., In the story Winnie the Pooh, A.A. Milne says, "You are braver than you believe, stronger than you seem, and smarter than you think.")
  • Explain that students will be using Introductory phrasesTo cite and record quotes. Underline the introductory phrases in your two examples. Explain that the introductory phrases help connect all the information to form a complete sentence.
  • Hand out the worksheet Cite an Author with Introductory Phrases and review the information box and sentence frames.
  • Have students work with a partner to complete the exercise at the bottom of the worksheet. Call on students to read their completed sentence frames aloud.
(10 minutes)
  • Hand out the worksheet Soccer: Nonfiction Text (first page only) and explain that they will be reading the text and citing a quote.
  • Tell students to read the text aloud with their partner.
  • On a piece of chart paper write, "Why is soccer popular?" in large print. Tell students to look back in the text and find a quote that answers the question. Instruct them to discuss their choice with their partner. Then have them highlight the quote they have chosen in the text.
  • Explain that when we use a quote to support our answer to a question, it is called Evidence. Review the definition of the word "evidence" if needed.
  • Hand out a large sticky note to each student.
  • Display the sentence frames from the Cite an Author with Introductory Phrases worksheet. Tell students to record their quote on their sticky note using one of the sentence frames.
  • Invite students to place their sticky notes on the chart paper. Read several student responses aloud.


  • Pre-teach additional vocabulary terms that students will see within texts during the lesson, like "association," "prestigious," "tournament," and "originated." Offer home language (L1) definitions, if applicable.
  • Provide background information about pop culture terms like the Super Bowl and the World Cup.
  • Allow beginning ELs to use bilingual resources to define new words throughout the lesson.
  • Strategically pair beginning ELs with more advanced ELs or students who speak the same home language.
  • Use a shorter text, with fewer tier two words, in place of the Soccer article (see materials list for alternative nonfiction text about bears).


  • During the discourse level focus, challenge advanced ELs to write sentences using word banks as supports rather than sentence frames (e.g., "says," "states," "according to," "author").
  • Allow advanced ELs to utilize a glossary, thesaurus, and dictionary for help with unfamiliar words.
  • Choose advanced ELs to share their ideas first in group and class discussions. Ask advanced ELs to add on, rephrase, or clarify what their peers say in class discussion.
  • Have advanced ELs repeat instructions and key vocabulary, summarizing important information for the class.
(5 minutes)
  • Write four recall questions on the board that relate to the soccer text:
    1. When was the game of soccer first created?
    2. How did people around the world learn about soccer?
    3. Is soccer popular in the United States?
    4. What is the World Cup?
  • Have students count off one to four. Tell students that they will be answering OnlyThe question that corresponds with their number. Remind them to highlight a quote in the text that serves as evidence.
  • Instuct students to read their assigned question. Then, do a choral reading of the text with the class.
  • Hand out index cards and tell students to write their name and the number of the question they are answering. Display the Cite an Author with Introductory Phrases worksheet and remind students to use one of the sentence frames when they answer their question. (e.g., The author says, "The United States has almost 18 million soccer players.")
  • Have students meet in small groups with the other students who answered the same question. Allow students to compare answers. Then, collect student responses as exit cards to gauge understanding.
(3 minutes)
  • Explain to students that using quotes as evidence is an important part of reading and writing in year six. Review the key concepts involved in quoting and citing an author or invite students to recount the information:
    • Use an author's name and/or the title of the text if possible.
    • Use quotation marks around any words that are copied.
    • Use an introductory phrase, like "the author says," when writing a sentence with a quote.
  • Create an anchor chart with the key concepts listed and keep it posted in your classroom for student reference.

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